Sheet vinyl is made to be a great floor covering performer. How sheet vinyl is made is not as complicated as one might imagine, for such an outstanding floor covering product, that is both durable and attractive.
How Sheet Vinyl is Made, the Components
Sheet vinyl is composed of 3 components, felt paper for the bottom, a layer of vinyl foam in the middle and a protective layer of vinyl on the top. To provide texture an inhibitor is applied to prevent expansion in selected areas.
How Sheet Vinyl is Made, the Production Process
In brief, the following is how sheet vinyl is made:
- The raw materials used in the production of sheet vinyl floor covering include polyvinyl chloride resins PVC to which is added white pigments and calcium carbonate which is both a filler and assist in coloring the mixture white. Plasticizers are added for flexibility along with fungicide to prevent mold growth and uv stabilizer to prevent fading. Additionally, a blowing agent is added though it is not activated until later in the manufacturing process when it is time to inflate the foam.
- The liquid mixture is applied to a paper backing of felt or a paper that is made from wood pulp and calcium carbonate. The coated paper is fed through an oven which gels the vinyl foam. The backing High-gloss surface vinyl sheets or vinyl tiles have an additional polyurethane coating applied at the end of the process. To provide texture an inhibitor is applied to prevent expansion in selected areas.
- The flooring design which is created by printer is pressed directly onto the gelled foam creating a decorative pattern.
- The top or wear layer of plasticizers is applied and sent through the oven at a higher temperature and the blowing agent is activated at this time by heat.
- Texture is created through a process known as chemical embossing where chemical inhibitors are added to selected color resulting in these areas remaining flat.
- For a sharper appearance the texture can be enhanced by mechanical embossing where an engraved roller prints the texture onto the surface.
- The mate or high-gloss level will vary with the chemical composition of the wear layer.
- Inspection takes place during manufacturing and at the end of the production line.